They combine the capabilities and resources of the subsystems and through intelligent collaboration offer more functionality than the sum of the individual systems (emergent behavior). An example of such a system of systems is the mobility system, which is increasingly connected to other systems such as the energy system or the communication system, e.g. through electric mobility and sharing concepts.
For companies, the trend towards system of systems offers the opportunity to develop new data based business models by generating and evaluating comprehensive data volumes. At the same time, competition is increasingly shifting from individual products to product systems to the complex systems of systems. In order to make use of the potentials of the intelligent networking of systems and to avoid systemic inefficiencies through problem shifts beyond the system boundaries, suitable methods and tools are required. The fields of research are amongst others the data-driven engineering of novel business models, product service systems, new mobility systems, as well as innovative forms of cooperation between companies in the sense of an industrial symbiosis.