The major requirements of modern road pavements are safety, functionality and sustainability. The research work of ISBS focuses on these requirements, emphasizing the increase in durability of asphalt pavements by means of structural optimization. In particular, by structural optimization a systematic methodology is understood for making the design, the selection of materials and the construction techniques as fully perfect and effective as possible, in order to guarantee maximum durability of the pavement regarding the respective traffic and climatic loading situation. This is a non-trivial problem. Structural optimization of flexible pavements requires knowledge of the relevant influence factors, considering the actual growth in heavy vehicle traffic, and new trends in the automobile and tire industries, as well as the effects of climate. Moreover, suitable procedures are required to assess material performance and failure mechanisms in pavement structures. The objective of structural optimization is not to eliminate pavement distress, but to minimize its severity in order to prevent premature pavement failure that reduces structural quality and serviceability.