Investigations on the nitrogen balance in arable soils include the processes of N-mineralisation and mineral-N-displacement prevailing during the winter half-year and the N-dynamics during the vegetation period (here mainly ammonium fixation and defixation; dynamics of microbial biomass). A part of these investigations is carried out using labelled nitrogen (15 N).
Long-term C- and N-dynamics of different ecosystems
For quite some time, studies have been carried out on long-term C- and N-dynamics in agricultural systems (e.g. C- and N-accumulation in soil organic matter after crumb deepening, N-release after grassland ploughing, C- and N-dynamics after compost application and in different tillage systems, stabilisation of soil organic matter). The activities in forest ecosystems focus on the long-term source and sink functions of forest soils, the effects of increased N-inputs on humus morphology and quality, and mineral N-development under anthropogenic influence.
Nutrient balances in German agriculture
Long-term balances (1950 to the present day) for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in agriculture are drawn up both at regional (countries) and national level. The nutrient surpluses calculated from these balances are evaluated from an ecological and economic point of view.
There is intensive cooperation on questions of the carbon and nutrient balance of soils with research groups in Great Britain, Italy, Spain, Russia, Rwanda and India, among others. Benbi (Indian cooperation partner) has resulted in the textbooks "Handbook of Processes and Modeling in the Soil-Plant System" (Haworth Press, New York) [http://www.soil.tu-bs.de/etc/handbook.pdf] and "Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment" (http://www.springer.com/978-1-4020-8432-4). In addition, the working group has been conducting studies on the N balance in China for many years.
Liao, W., C. Liu, Y. Yuan, Z. Gao, R. Nieder, M.Roelcke (2019): Trade-offs of gaseous emissions from soils under vegetable, wheat-maize and apple orchard cropping systems applied with digestate: An incubation study, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. DOI: 10.1080/10962247.2019.1694091
Roelcke, M., L. Heimann, Y. Hou, J. Guo, Q. Xue, W. Jia, A. Ostermann, R. Mendoza Huaitalla, M. Engbers, C. Olbrich, R.W. Scholz, J. Clemens, F. Schuchardt, R. Nieder, X. Liu, F. Zhang (2019): Phosphorus status, use and recycling in a Chinese peri-urban region with intensive animal husbandry and cropping systems. , Front Agr Sci Eng 6(4):388-402. DOI: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019286
Diogo, R.V.C, M. Bizimana, and R. Nieder (2017): Effects of compost type and storage conditions of climbing bean on Technosols of Tantalum mining sites in Western Rwanda, Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 180, 482-490
Heimann, L., M. Roelcke, Y. Hou, A. Ostermann, W.Q. Ma, and R. Nieder (2015): Nutrients and pollutants in agricultural soils in the peri-urban region of Beijing: Status and recommendations, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 209 (Special Issue), 74-88, doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2015.03.026
Hofmeier, M., M. Roelcke, Y. Han, T. Lan, H. Bergmann, D. Böhm, Z.C. Cai, and R. Nieder (2015): Nitrogen management in a rice-wheat system in the Taihu Region: Recommendations based on field experiments and surveys, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 209 (Special Issue), 60-73, doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2015.03.032
Roelcke, M., L. Heimann, A. Ostermann, Y. Hou, K. Müller-Hansen, H.Y. Lu, M. Knaus, J. Clemens, R. Nieder, H. Goldbach, W.Q. Ma, R.J. Dong, X.J. Liu and F.S. Zhang (2013): Organic residue management options in an Chinese peri-urban region with high nutrient and pollutant loads, In: Dong, R.J. and Raninger, B. (eds.): Biogas Engineering and Application, Volume 3, p. 295-309. China Agricultural University Press, Beijing, ISBN: 978-7-5655-0751-9, 361 pp.
Reetsch, A., Naramabuye, F., Pohl, W., Zachmann, D., Trümper, K., Flügge, J., and Nieder, R. (2008): Properties and quality of soils in the open-cast mining district of Gatumba, Rwanda., Etudes Rwandaises 16, 51-79.
Nieder, R. (2005): Carbon and nitrogen turnover in North German forest soils, In: Z.L. Zhu, K. Minami and G.X. Xing (eds.): Proceedings of the 3rd International Nitrogen Conference , Oct 12-16, 2004, Nanjing, China. pp 152-158. Science Press, Beijing, Science Press, New York
Benbi, D.K., and R. Nieder (2003): Handbook of Processes and Modeling in Soil-Plant System, Haworth Press, Inc., New York, 762 Seiten
Nieder, R., D.K Benbi, and K. Isermann (2003): Soil Organic Matter Dynamics, In: D.K. Benbi & R. Nieder (Eds.) – Handbook of Processes and Modeling in Soil-Plant System. - Haworth Press, Inc., New York.
Nieder, R., W. Köster, H.B Dauk, and S. Brinkmann (2003): Nährstoffüberschüsse in Deutschland von 1950 bis 2000: Quellen, Senken und Wirkungen auf die Umwelt. I. N-Überhang der Landwirtschaft, Z.f. Landnutzung und Landentwicklung 44, 172-178
Bailly, F., and R. Nieder (2002): FAO/Unesco, Bodenkarte der Welt, Kapitel 3.2.7., In H.P. Blume, P. Felix-Henningsen, W.R. Fischer, H.G. Frede, R. Horn & K. Stahr (Hrsg.), - Handbuch der Bodenkunde, Ecomed, Landsberg.
Bailly, F., and R. Nieder (2001): Bezugsgrundlage der Boden-Ressourcen der Erde (WRB), In: H.P. Blume, P. Felix-Henningsen, W.R. Fischer, H.G. Frede, R. Horn & K. Stahr (Hrsg.), - Handbuch der Bodenkunde, Kapitel 3.2.6, Ecomed, Landsberg, 53 S.
Nieder, R., H.P. Dauck, and D.K. Benbi (2001): Mineralization of newly accumulated nitrogen, In: W.J. Horst et al. (Eds): Plant nutrition – Food security and sustainability of agro-ecosystems. Kluver Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 940-941
Nieder, R., and J. Richter (2000): C and N accumulation in arable soils of West Germany and its influence on the environment - Developments 1970 to 1998, J. Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 163 (1), 65-72
Nieder, R., E. Neugebauer, A. Willenbockel, K.C. Kersebaum, and J. Richter (1996): Nitrogen transformation in arable soils of NW Germany during the cereal growing season, Biol. Fertil. Soils, 22, 179-183
Köster, W. und R. Nieder (1995): Wann ist eine Grunddüngung mit Phosphor, Kalium und Magnesium wirtschaftlich vertretbar?, Erscheint im Dezember 2008 online auf dieser Webseite
Nieder, R., K.C. Kersebaum, and J. Richter (1995): Significance of nitrate leaching and long term N immobilization after deepening the plough layers in the N regime of arable soils of NW Germany, Plant and Soil, 173, 167-175
Nieder, R., G.Schollmayer, and J. Richter (1991): Denitrification in the rooting zone of cropped soils with regard to methodology and climate: a review, Biol. Fertil. Soils, 8, 219-226
Nieder (2019): Soil and health, Jahrestagung der Bodenkundlichen Gesellschaft der Schweiz und der Deutschen Bodenkundlichen Gesellschaft, Bern, 24. – 29. August 2019
Roelcke (2019): Quantification of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from manures applied to arable soils in the North China Plain – and possible mitigation approaches., Jahrestagung der Bodenkundlichen Gesellschaft der Schweiz und der Deutschen Bodenkundlichen Gesellschaft, Bern, 24. – 29. August 2019.
Roelcke (2018): Biogas plant effluent utilization and nutrient management plan in agriculture in the North China Plain, March 15, 2018, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning (IARRP), Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Beijing, China.
Roelcke (2018): Environmental assessment of manure treatment and mitigation measures – Examples from Germany and China, International Workshop on Agriculture Green Development, April 23-27, 2018, Beijing, China
Roelcke (2018): Gaseous emissions from manures applied to arable soils in the North China Plain – overview of recent experiments, and mitigation measures, Institute seminar of Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Thünen Institute. December 18, 2018, Braunschweig, Germany
Roelcke (2017): Soil nutrient and pollutant status, and organic residue management options in a Chinese peri-urban region with high livestock densities, April 20, 2017, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning (IARRP), Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Beijing, China.
Nieder (2016): Nitrogen dynamics in deep ploughed soils of North Germany. , 7th International Nitrogen Initiative Conference (INI 2016), Melbourne, Australia, 4-8 December 2016
Nieder (2013): Nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in soils of the Gatumba tin-tantalum mining district, Rwanda, 6th International Nitrogen Conference, 17-20 November 2013, Kampala, Uganda. Just enough N – Perspectives on how to get there for “too much” and “too little” Regions
Nieder (2013): Nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in soils of the Gatumba Mining District: Results from laboratory experiments , Coltan Workshop in Kigali, February 4th, 2013
Nieder (2013): Highlights of toxic element analyses in the Gatumba Mining District, Coltan Workshop in Kigali, Rwanda, February 4th, 2013
Roelcke (2013): Recycling of organic residues from agricultural and municipal origin in China, Final Symposium International Research Training Group GRK 1070. Sino-German Center, Beijing, China, 25–26 April 2013: Modeling Material Flows and Production Systems for Sustainable Resource Use in Intensified Crop Production in the North China Plain
Roelcke (2013): Strategien zur Verbesserung der Nährstoffsituation in den stadtnahen Randgebieten Beijings mit Intensiv-Tierhaltung, Jahrestagung der DBG: »Böden - Lebensgrundlage und Verantwortung«, 7.-12. September 2013, Rostock
Nieder (2012): Recycling of organic residues from agricultural and municipal origin in China. Overview of the Bonn-Braunschweig research group. , Final Workshop in the Sino-German Center for Science Promotion, Beijing, China March 9th to11th, 2012.
Nieder (2012): Environmental Research in a Tantalum Mining Area in Central Africa. , Presentation at Nanjing Normal University, China, November 14th, 2012.
Roelcke (2012): Soil nutrient and pollutant status and organic residue management options in the peri-urban region of Beijing, Nov. 28, 2012, College of Resources and Environmental Science, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, China.
Roelcke (2012): Soil nutrient and pollutant status and organic residue management options in the peri-urban region of Beijing, Nov. 18, 2012, Seminar at College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, summarizing main results and recommendations of the project "Recycling of organic residues from agricultural and municipal origin in China"
Roelcke (2012): Nitrogen fertilization in rice-wheat systems in SE China - Results from recent field experiments, farmers’ surveys, and formulation of recommendations, Workshop on Nitrogen cycling in terrestrial ecosystems: Methods and outlook, Nanjing, China, September 7-14, 2012. Sponsored by Chinesisch-Deutsches Zentrum für Wissenschaftsförderung (DFG-NSFC) Beijing
Roelcke (2012): Nitrogen fertilization in rice-wheat systems in SE China - Results from recent field experiments, farmers’ surveys, and formulation of recommendations, Nov. 16, 2012, Presentation summarizing main results from the "Nitrogen Management" project for the responsible officials and technological experts, Huaian Agricultural Technology Extension Center, Huaian, Jiangsu Province, China
Nieder (2011): Innovative Nitrogen Management Technologies to improve Agricultural Production and Environmental Protection in Intensive Chinese Agriculture. Overview of the TU Braunschweig-coordinated research group., Final Workshop Recycling Project in Beijing, November 2011.
Roelcke (2007): Nitrogen mineralization in soils under organic farming and conservation tillage as compared to conventional management., Symposium: Sustainable Land-Use in China: The Contribution of Collaborative Sino-German Research. 13-14 Sept. 2007, Sino-German Center for the Promotion of Science, Beijing (DFG-NSFC).
Widdig, M., M. Roelcke, Z. Gao, W. Ma, A. Michalczyk, K.-C. Kersebaum, and R. Nieder (2017): Quantification and modeling of ammonia volatilization from irrigated and non-irrigated winter wheat plots in the North China Plain, The 15th International Symposium on Soil and Plant Analysis (15th ISSPA Nanjing 2017), Nanjing, China, May 14-18, 2017
Nieder, R., M. Bensemann,. D.K. Benbi (2016): Land use effects on C and N dynamics in an area near Braunschweig, North Germany, 19th Nitrogen Workshop, Skara, Sweden, 27-29 June 2016.
Nieder, R., Z. Jumshudov, V. Alcántara, A. Don, and R. Well (2016): Nitrogen dynamics in deep ploughed soils of North Germany , 7th International Nitrogen Initiative Conference (INI 2016), Melbourne, Australia, 4-8 December 2016
Bensemann, M., D. K. Benbi, and R. Nieder (2015): Influence of land use on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in soils, Jahrestagung der Deutschen Bodenkundl. Gesellschaft, München, 05.-10.9.2015
Jumshudov, Z., R. Nieder, V. Alcantara, A. Don, and R. Well (2015): Sequestrierung organischer Bodensubstanz in Unterböden tiefgepflügter Äcker , Jahrestagung der Deutschen Bodenkundl. Gesellschaft, München, 05.-10.9.2015
Hofmeier, M., M. Roelcke, Y. Han, Z.C. Cai, C. Schuster, M. Fuchs, and R. Nieder (2014): Testing of a stabilized nitrogen fertilizer in a rice-wheat doublre-crop rotation in southeastern China, 18th Nitrogen Workshop - The nitrogen challenge: building a blueprint for nitrogen use efficiency and food security. 30th June - 3rd July 2014, Lisboa, Portugal
Weber, T.K.D., R. Nieder, I. Paulman, A. Muwanga, M. Owor, F.-X. Naramabuye, H. Biester, F. Gakwerere, M. Biryabarema, and W. Pohl (2014): Occurrence of Trace Elements in Soils, Plants, Water and Stream Sediments of the Tin-Tantalum Mining Area of Gatumba, Rwanda, ASA, CSSA, & SSSA International Annual Meeting, Nov 2-5, Long Beach, CA.
Hofmeier, M., M. Roelcke, Y. Han, Z.C. Cai, and R. Nieder (2012): Nitrogen mineralization potentials in rice-wheat systems in southeastern China, 17th International Nitrogen Workshop, Wexford, Ireland, 26-29 June 2012
Hofmeier, M., Y. Han, T. Lan, Z. Cai, M. Roelcke and R. Nieder (2011): Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiencies in Rice-wheat Rotations in Southeastern China, Tropentag, October 5-7, 2011, Bonn
Schmidhalter, U., Y.C. Hu, R. Nieder and M. Roelcke (2010): Innovative nitrogen management technologies to improve agricultural production and environmental protection in China, 7th BMBF Forum for Sustainability “Research for Sustainable development – International”
Heck P., R. Nieder, H. Goldbach, F.S. Zhang, K. Mueller-Hansen, M. Roelcke, J. Clemens, X.J. Liu, H.Y. Lu, T.N. Cui (2009): Recycling of Organic Residues from Agricultural and Municipal Origin in China., ORBIT 2009 CHINA International Conference: Biomass and Organic Waste as Sustainable Resources. Beijing, November 19-21, 2009.