A2.1 - Exterior noise assessment of single fly-over events
Exterior noise assessment of single fly-over events
Contribution to SE2A research and targets
The proposed activities directly contribute to the fundamental objectives of SE2A as defined in the ful proposal from February 2018. The proposed simulation process will help to identify and determine the medium and long-term (year 2050) potential for eliminating the carbon footprint of future air transport operation under consideration of aircraft noise. Social and economic constraints can directly be associated with community noise annoyance due to aircraft operation. The selected simulation process will enable to assess comprehensive criteria and metrics and to serve as a basis for decision-making between ICA-A, ICA-B, and ICA-C. For example, the proposed process is an essential prerequisite to assess the noise of any new vehicle and flight procedures as developed in ICA-B (under 220.127.116.11 Design methodology and assessment of aircraft) and noise shall be included as a design constraint in the planned Design Engineering Engine (DEE).
The overall process for the evaluation of novel aircraft and technology is depicted here. The process is comprised of ICA-A.1, ICA-A.2, and ICA-A.3.
State of research
Various research activities in the field of low-noise aircraft design and flight trajectory optimization are ongoing at universities and major research organizations, e.g., NASA activities in the Environmental Responsible Aviation Program . NASA has developed a tool ANOPP for parametric noise prediction back in the 70ies and is ever since updating and modifying it to account for recent findings and innovations toward low-noise vehicle concepts . The focus lies on the vehicle design and flight procedures are currently not adapted and optimized. ANOPP2, i.e., the scientific variant of ANOPP, can be applied to study promising low-noise architectures, e.g., a hybrid wing body [3, 4]. A summary of low-noise activities toward quiet subsonic transport concepts is summarized in Ref. . The latest application results to tube-and-wing architectures are presented in Refs. [5, 6]. Consequently, these advanced vehicles are then integrated by Georgia Tech into the airspace to identify the impact on airport capacity and overall scenario noise. Yet, this integration is a subsequent process without feedback loop back to the aircraft design or flight procedure, see Ref. [7, 8]. Furthermore, the challenge with respect to such an integration is not to neglect important information or actual physics due to simplification and integration of single flight events into large simulation scenarios. Besides NASA, ONERA has published about their activities toward low-noise air transport concepts. The focus thereby lies on the overall impact on a scenario level, i.e., the environmental impact of novel vehicles on the air transport system, see Refs. [9, 10, 11, 12].
R.H. Thomas, C.L. Burley, and C.L. Nickol. Assessment of the noise reduction potential of advanced subsonic transport concepts for nasa’s environmentally responsible aviation project. 54th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 2016.
V. Lopes and C.L. Burley. Design of the next generation aircraft noise prediction program: Anopp2. 17th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, 2011.
C.L. Burley, J.W. Rawls, J.J. Berton, and M.A. Marcolini. Hybrid wing body aircraft system noise assessment with propulsion airframe aeroacoustic experiments. NASA Technical report, NASA/TP-2012-215653, pages –, 2012.
R.H. Thomas, C.L. Burley, and E.D. Olson. Hybrid wing body aircraft system noise assessment with propulsion airframe aeroacoustic experiments. International Journal of Aeroacoustics, 11(3):–, 2012.
I. A. Clark, R.H. Thomas, and Y. Guo. Aircraft system noise assessment of the nasa d8 subsonic transport concept. AIAA Aeroacoustics Conference, 2018.
Y. Guo and R.H. Thomas. Far term noise reduction roadmap for the mid-fuselage nacelle subsonic transport. AIAA Aeroacoustics Conference, 2018.
J. de Luis. A process for the quantification of aircraft noise and emissions interdependencies. PhD thesis, Georgia Tech, 2008.
P. Hollingsworth, H. Pfaender, and H. Jimenez. A method for assessing the environmental benefit of future aviation technologies. 26th INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE AERONAUTICAL SCIENCE, 2008
M. Brunet, P. Malbequi, and W. Ghedhaifi. A novel approach to air transport system environmental impact evaluation through physical modelling and simulation. 26th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, 2008.
P. Malbequi, Y. Rozenberg, and J. Bulte. Aircraft noise modelling and assessment in the iesta program. Internoise, 2011.
Y. Rosenberg and J. Bulte. Fast aircraft noise prediction including installation effects for the evaluation of air transport systems. Internoise, 2008.
L. Sanders, P. Malbequi, and I. LeGriffon. Capabilities of iesta-carmen to predict aircraft noise. 23rd International Congress on Sound and Vibration, 2016.
Own previous work
Activities in the area of low-noise aircraft design and low-noise flight optimization have been initiated around 2008 and are still ongoing. Based on parametric models for engine and airframe noise, a tool for overall aircraft noise immission prediction has been developed . The tool has been furthermore integrated into aircraft design synthesis codes and distributed simulation environments to finally enable an automated assessment of novel vehicles and flight procedures [2, 3]. Noise predictions can now automatically be added as design constraints within the aircraft design process, see Ref. . Additional noise sources have been integrated and the tool has constantly been updated for additional applications, e.g., see Refs. ,  and . Yet, introduction of new technologies, e.g., advanced propulsion integration, can create new noise sources that must be carefully modelled for reliable application in aircraft design. Recent applications include short take-off and landing vehicles with active high-lift concepts [8, 9] and the assessment of ultra high bypass ratio engines on board of conventional and low-noise aircraft architectures, see Refs.  and , respectively. Investigation of the annoyance of novel vehicles along their flight procedures has been initiated in 2015  and an auralization process with dedicated listening tests has been realized in 2018, see Ref. . The first attempt to assess uncertainties associated with the noise prediction is described in Ref. . A recent overview on all related activities and on noise assessment in general is described in Ref. .
Previous work does not include any cabin noise assessment which might become an essential design objective in the context of novel engine integration concepts. This issue is adressed in ICA-A2.3.
L. Bertsch, W. Dobrzynski, and S. Guerin. Tool development for low-noise aircraft design. AIAA JoA, doi: 10.2514/1.43188, 47(2):694–699, 2008.
L. Bertsch, G. Looye, E. Anton, and S. Schwanke. Flyover noise measurements of a spiraling noise abatement approach procedure. AIAA JoA, doi: 10.2514/1.C001005, 48(2):436–448, 2011.
H. H. Toebben, V. Mollwitz, L. Bertsch, B. Korn, and D. Kuegler. Flight testing of noise abating rnp procedures and steep approaches. Journal of Aerospace Engineering, -(-):–, 2013.
L. Bertsch, W. Heinze, S. Guérin, M. Lummer, and J. Delfs. 10 Years of Joint Research at DLR and TU Braunschweig toward Low-Noise Aircraft Design - What Did we Achieve? Aeronautics and Aerospace Open Access Journal, 3 (2), Seiten 89-105. MedCrave Group, https://doi.org/10.15406/aaoaj.2019.03.00085, 2019
Blinstrub and L. Bertsch. Towards an immission-based noise reduction method for conceptual aircraft design. Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design New Results in Numerical and Eperimental Fluid Mechanics X, 10(-):687–697, 2016.
R. Ramdjanbeg, L. Bertsch, K. S. Rossignol, and D. G. Simons. Flap side-edge noise prediction within conceptual aircraft design. Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design New Results in Numerical and Eperimental Fluid Mechanics X, 10(-):731–742, 2016.
M. Pott-Pollenske, J. Wild, and L. Bertsch. Aerodynamic and acoustic design of silent leading edge devices. 20th AIAA Aeroacoustics Conference, 2014.
J. Blinstrub, L. Bertsch, and W. Heinze. Assessment of the noise immission along approach and departure flightpaths. AIAA Aviation Forum, 2018.
R. Radespiel, W. Heinze, and L. Bertsch. High-lift research for future transport aircraft. Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrtkongress, 2017.
D. Giesecke, M. Lehmler, J. Friedrichs, J. Blinstrub, L. Bertsch, and W. Heinze. Evaluation of ultrahigh bypass ratio engines for an over-wing aircraft configuration design studies. Journal of the Global Power and Propulsion Society, doi: 10.22261/JGPPS.8SHP7K, -(-):–, 2018.
L. Bertsch, F. Wolters, W. Heinze, M. Pott-Pollenske, and J. Blinstrub. System noise assessment of a tube-and-wing aircraft with geared turbofan engines. AIAA Aviation Forum, 2018.
M. Arntzen, L. Bertsch, and D. Simons. Auralization of novel aircraft configurations. 5th CEAS Air and Space Conference, 2015.
R. Pieren, L. Bertsch, J. Blinstrub, B. Schäffer, and J. Wunderli. Simulation process for perceptionbased noise optimization of conventional and novel aircraft concepts. AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 2018.
L. Bertsch, B. Schäfer, S. Guerin. Uncertainty analysis for parametric aircraft system noise prediction. Journal of Aircraft, 56 (2), Seiten 529-544. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). DOI: 10.2514/1.C034809 ISSN 0021-8669
U. Isermann and L. Bertsch. Aircraft noise immission modeling. CEAS Aeronautical Journal - Special Edition: Aircraft Noise Generation and Assessment (accepted), -(-):–, 2019.
DLR low-noise aircraft design
Exemplary, a DLR low-noise aircraft concept is depicted here. Based on previous studies, new vehicle will be designed and assessed in the context of the Cluster. Another design criteria for novel vehicles is the reduction of gaseous emissions and the overall climate effect of aviation. Promising solutions could feature electrification of the propulsion system or application of alternative fuels, socalled bio fuels.
Current activities in the Cluster
Initial work in the Cluster context demonstrates the feasibility of a multi-level, multi-fidelity approach. The approach furtermore facilitates the assessment of new aircraft technologies within an entire airport scenario as proposed for the SE2A cluster, see Cluster reference  (under Publikationen). A first application of this evaluation process to recent DLR low-noise aircraft is presented in Cluster reference  (under Publikationen).
Most recent activities focus on the aircraft design of low-noise SE2A vehicles under consideration of gaseous emissions. Furthermore, activities with international partners Empa and University of Alamaba have been initiated in the area of prediction uncertainties. The activity is coordinated by ICA-A2.1 and cluster partner Prof. Uli Römer (involved in ICA-B2.3 and ICA-C1.1).
Dual Supervising Concept
The key requirement to introduce any sustainable air transport solution, is to ensure the stakeholders acceptance of new technologies and novel aircraft along their individual flight procedures. Obviously, the exterior aircraft noise (immission) plays a major role for the acceptance. Consequently, each fly-over event has to be simulated in an adequate level of detail in order to assess the entire problem. Within the cluster, new simulation capabilities are required to simultaneously assess environmental, economic and social criteria, e.g., noise exposure versus life-cycle analysis. In this context, a cooperation with Prof. Zoltan Spakovszky from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is established. Prof. Spakovszky is a well known expert in the area of low-noise aircraft design  and novel technologies in the context of electrification in aviation . He acts as a double supervisor for the ICA-A2 PhD candidate and thereby supports the identification and assessment of promising novel technology and vehicle designs to ultimately reach the SE2A targets. The overall target of the cooperation is to realized and ensure a feasible and comprehensible comparison of different aircraft technologies as developed in the SE2A, i.e., realization of a decision-making support in the context of sustainable air transport solutions
Prof. Zoltan Spakovszky, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boston, USA
 Z.S. Spakovszky: Advanced Low-Noise Aircraft Configurations and Their Assessment: Past, Present, and Future, CEAS Aeronautical Journal, Special Issue: Aircraft Noise Generation and Assessment, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13272-019-00371-8, 2019
 D.K. Hall, E.M. Greitzer, A.P. Dowdle, J.J. Gonzalez, W.W. Hoburg, J.H. Lang, J.S. Sabnis, Z.S. Spakovszky, B. Yutko, C. Courtin, W. Thalheimer, L. Trollinger, J. Tylko, N. Varney, A. Uranga, S. Byahut, and M. Kruger: Feasibility of Electrified Propulsion for Ultra-Efficient Commercial Aircraft, Final Report, NASA/CR—2019-220382, 2019
J. Delfs, L. Bertsch, C. Zellmann, L. Rossian, E. K. Far, T. Ring, and S. Langer: Aircraft noise assessment - from single components to large scenarios. Energies Journal, Special Issue: Towards a Transformation to Sustainable Aviation Systems, https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020429, 2018
C. Zellmann, L. Bertsch, O. Schwab, F. Wolters, J. Delfs. Aircraft noise assessment of next-generation narrow-body aircraft. In: Inter-Noise 2019. Inter-Noise 2019, 16.-19. Juni 2019, Madrid, Spanien.